The Texas Cherokees: A People Between Two Fires, 1919-1840 details the unique and tragic story of those Cherokee who settled in the Texas state of Mexico and eventually the Republic of Texas, prior to statehood. Led by Chief Bowles, Duwali, they separated from other Western Cherokees in a effort to retain the tribe’s traditional ways. Through a treaty with Sam Houston the tribe thrived in east Texas. Sadly, Houston’s successor, Mirabeau B. Lamar ordered that all American Indians leave Texas. Chief Bowles refused and Lamar ordered an attack — massacring many Cherokee, including Chief Bowles.